© the British Museum: Hoxne hoard silver tigress

 

 

Will of Theodredus, Bishop of London and Hoxne (c.938 to c.951)

In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, I Theodredus, Bishop of the people of London, wish to announce my will concerning my property, what I have acquired and may yet acquire, by the pace of God and his saints, for my soul and for that of my lord under whom I acquired it and for my ancestors' souls, and for the souls of all the men for whom I intercede, and from whom I have received alms, and for whom, it is fitting that I should pray. First, he grants his lord his heriot, namely 200 mancuses (coins) of red gold, and two saver cups and four horses, the best that I have, and two swords, the best that I have, and four shields and four spears; and the estate which I have at Duxford, and the estate which I have at Illington and the estate which I have at Arrington. And I grant to Eadgifu 50 mancuses of red gold. And to St Paul's church I grant the two best chasubles that I have, with all the things which belong to them, together with a chalice and one cup. And my best mass-book and the best relics that I have to St Paul's church. And I grant to St Paul's church the estate at Cic [St. Osyth], as an estate to provide sustenance for the community, with all that is on it, except the men who are there; they are all to be freed for my soul's sake. And I grant the estate at Southery with all the fishing which belongs to it, to the community at St Paul's church, and the men are to be freed for the bishop's soul. And Bishop Theodredus grants the estate at Tillingham to St Paul's church to be the property of the community, and the men are to be freed for my soul. And I grant the estate at Dunmow after my death to St Paul's church for the community. And I grant the estate at Mendham I to my sister's son Osgod after my death, except that I desire that the minster and a hide of land at Mendham [are given]to the church. And I grant the estate at Shotford and Mettingham to God's community at Mendham church. And I grant to Osgod the estates at Syleham, and at Instead, and at Chickering and at Ashfield, and at Wortinham, and all the small estates which belong to these.

And I grant the estates at Horham and at Athelington to God's community at St Ethelbert's church at Hoxne.

And I grant the estate at Lothingland to Offa, my sister's son and his brother, and half the men are to be freed there, and also at Mendham, for the bishop's soul. And I grant to my kinsman Osgod, Eadwulf's son, the estate at Barton, and at Rougham, and at Pakenham. And I grant the estates at Nowton and at Horningsheath and at Ickworth and at Whepstead to St Edmund's church, as the property of God's community, for Bishop Theodredus's soul. And I grant to Osgod my sister's son, the estate at Waldringfield and my messuage in Ipswich, which I bought. And I grant to Wulfstan the estate at Wortham just as it stands. And I grant to every bishop's see five pounds to be distributed for my soul. And l grant to the archbishops five mancuses' of gold. And I grant that ten pounds be distributed for my soul at my episcopal demesne, in London and outside London.

And I grant that ten pounds be distributed for my soul at my episcopal demesne at Hoxne. And it is my will that the stock which is at Hoxne, which I have acquired there, be taken and divided into two parts, half for the minster, and [half] to be distributed for my soul. And as much as I found on that estate is to be left on it, but all the men are to be freed for my soul.

And it is my wish that at London there be left as much as I found on the estate, and that what I have added to it be taken and divided into two, half for the minster and half for my soul, and all the men are to be freed. And the same is to be done at Wimbledon and at Sheen. And at Fulham everything is to be left as it now stands, unless one wishes to free any of my men. And at Dengie let there be left as much as I found on the estate and let the rest be divided into two, half for the minster and half for my soul. And I grant to Glastonbury five pounds for my soul. And I grant to Theodreus my white chasuble which I bought in Pavia, and all that belongs to it, and a chalice for festivals and the mass-book which Gosebriht bequeathed to me. And I grant to Odgar the yellow chasuble which I bought in Pavia, and what belongs to it. And I grant to Gundwine the other yellow chasuble which is unornamented, and what belongs to it. And I have promised to Ake the red chasuble and all that belongs to it. And whosoever detracts from my testament, may God deprive him of the kingdom of heaven, unless he make amends for it before his death.

The will survives today in Cambridge University library.